al-hass al-‘amm

A term used by al-Khawarizmi to denote common sense. See also al-hiss al-mushtarik.


Lit. "two margins or limits"; technically the term denotes the doctrine of the philosophers, particularly that of Mulla Sadra, according to which all existents have "two limits", one towards the Necessary Being (al-wajib al-wujud, q.v.) and the other towards the prime matter (hayula, q.v.). See also al-Shaikh al-Yunani (Plotinus) in whom we already meet a similar view about existents.


An intermediate "mode of existence", between being and non-being. In tasawwuf the term denotes an instantaneous trans-temporal mystical state by which a Sufi is seized in the act of encounter with a "favour" or grace from God.

hujjat al-Islam

"The convincing proof of Islam”, the honorific title given to the greatest theologian of Islam, Imam al-Ghazali (450-505/1058-1111), one of the greatest and most original thinkers, not only in the history of Muslim philosophy but in the history of human thought. This title befits him most because of his defense of the teachings of Islam through a remarkable criticism of the Muslim Peripatetic philosophers in his celebrated work: Tahafut al-Falasifah (The Incoherence of the Philosophers). Links: Ghazali's Site.


A term, i.e. word or combination of words, which by itself can be used as a subject (maudu‘, q.v.) or a predicate (mahmul, q.v.) of a logical proposition (qadiyah, q.v.); also the definition of a term. See also the various kind of hadd.

al-hadd al-asghar

The minor term, i.e. the term which is used as a subject in the conclusion of a syllogism (qiyas, q.v.).

al-hadd al-akbar

The major term, i.e. the term which is used as predicate in the conclusion of a syllogism (qiyas, q.v.).

al-hadd al-ausat

The middle term; the term which is common to the two premises in a syllogism and functions as a uniting link between them; it is, however, absent from the conclusion.

al-hadd al-tamm

The complete definition of a thing consisting of its proximate genus and differentia, e.g. the definition of man as a rational animal; also called al-hadd al-kamil.


The capacity of the mind to draw immediate inferences from the data presented to it or to see through a kind of mental illumination the necessary connection between premises and conclusion.

al-hadd ghair al-muwati

The syncategorematic word, i.e. one which by itself cannot be used as a term (hadd), i.e. as a subject (maudu‘, q.v.) or a predicate (mahmul, q.v.) of a logical proposition (qadiyah, q.v.), by itself without the support of other words, such, for example, as definite or indefinite article, preposition, etc.

al-hadd al-kamil

The perfect definition of a thing consisting of its proximate genus and differentia, e.g. the definition of man as a rational animal.

al-hadd al-muwati

The categorematic word which can be used as a term (hadd), i.e. as a subject (maudu‘, q.v.) or a predicate (mahmul, q.v.) of a logical proposition (qadiyah, q.v.), by itself without the support of other words; such is usually a noun, pronoun, an adjective, etc.

al-hadd al-naqis

The imperfect definition of a thing referring merely to its differentia or to the differentia and the remote genus, e.g. definition of man as one who is rational or a "body" which is rational.

al-hudud al-thalathah

"The three terms", i.e. the three terms of syllogism (qiyas, q.v.), viz. the major term (al-hadd al-akbar, q.v.), the minor term (al-hadd al-asghar, q.v.) and the middle term (al-hadd al-ausat, q.v.).


Temporal, originated. (AnAc)

harakat al-Ittisal

 Continuous. See Fazlur Rahman, Sadra, 103, line 27. (AnAc)

al-harakat al-iradiyah

Voluntary movement as opposed to constrained or forced movement (al-harakat al-qasriyah, q.v.); al-harakat al-iradiyah is also distinguished from al-harakat al-tabi‘iyah (q.v.) for, whereas the former is multidirectional, the latter is unidirectional.

al-harakat al-dhatiyah

The movement of a body not through an intermediary but by itself -opposed to al-harakat al-‘ardiyah (q.v.).

al-harakat al-tabi‘iyah

Natural movement, for example, a stone falling on the ground; it is necessarily a linear or unidirectional movement as compared to al-harakat al-iradiyah (q.v.) which may be multilinear or multidirectional.

al-harakat al-‘ardiyah

Lit. "accidental movement"; technically movement of a body through an intermediary, e.g. the movement of a ring on the finger along the movement of the finger or the movement of a person sitting in a boat along the movement of the boat -opposed to al-harakat al-dhatiyah (q.v.).

harakat fi’l-ain

Movement of a body from one place to another; it is also called naqlah (q.v.).

harakat fi’l-kamm

Quantitative change in a body; it is of four kinds: when the quantitative change in a body is due to nourishment or lack of it is called namuw (growth) or dhubul (decay or dimunition); and when a change is independent of the factor of nourishment or lack of it, it is either takhalkhul (q.v.), i.e. expansion, e.g. of water into steam takathuf (q.v.), i.e. compression or condensation, e.g. of steam vapours into water.

harakat fi’l-kaif

Qualitative change in a body from one state or condition into another, e.g. water becoming hot after it was cold; also called istihalah (q.v.).

harakat fi’l-wad‘

Movement on account of the change in the position of a body, e.g. a man who is sitting suddenly lies down; sometimes identified with al-harakat al-mustadirah (q.v.), e.g. the movement of a millstone in a mill which is a movement within the surrounding surface or space of a body of the millstone and not from one place to another.

al-harakat al-qasriyah

Forced or constrained movement, for example, of a stone thrown upwards; opposed to al-harakat al-iradiyah (q.v.).

al-harakat al-mustadirah

Lit. "the circular movement"; technically the movement of body within the surrounding surface or space of that body as distinguished from harakat fi’l-ain (q.v.) which is a movement from place (makan) to another; this movement is peculiar to the celestial spheres in the Ptolemaic astronomy.

al-harakat al-mustaqimah

Linear or unidirectional movement peculiar to bodies in the world of elements; contrasted with al-harakat al-mustadirah (q.v.) peculiar to the heavenly bodies in the world of celestial spheres.

al-hiss al-mushtarik

The common sense (sensus communis) located in the first ventricle of the front brain; it combines all the forms of the sensible objects that are received through the five external senses (al-hawas al-khamsah, q.v.). It may be said that it is a faculty in which all the sense-perceptions are so coalesced that they assume a single form. This is how when we see the yellow colour of honey, we can internally tell that it is sweet, good-smelling and fluid; true, we have our past experiences of the taste, smell and touch of honey without sensing them again has become possible only through the functioning of the faculty of common sense.


Case (see Asfar, 1: 43) (AnAc)


A proposition, i.e. a logical judgement expressed in a sentence. It is an assertion or statement of the relation of agreement or disagreement between two terms one of which is called the predicate (mahmul, q.v.) and the other the subject (maudu‘, q.v.) of that predicate synonymous with qadiyah (q.v.).

al-hukm al-salib

A logical judgement in which the predicate is mentally denied of the subject.

al-hukm al-mujib

A logical judgement in which the predicate is mentally affirmed of the subject.

al-hikmat al-ishraqiyah

"Illuminationist theosophy": a school of thought in Muslim religio-philosophical thought which identifies philosophy with wisdom and gnosis rather than with abstract speculation and rational systematisation. Accordingly, unlike the Peripatetic philosophers of whom it is mostly critical, it lays greater emphasis on intuition (attained through invocation, meditation and purification of the soul) than on discursive intellect to reach the light of wisdom which, it maintains, was first revealed to the prophets and only partly understood and even misinterpreted by the Greek philosophers. As enunciated in the Hikmat al-Ishraq (528/1186) by Shihab al-Din al-Suharwardi (549-587/1153-1191), the founder of the school, it integrates Platonic and Aristotelian philosophy with the Zoroastrian principles of light and darkness along with its peculiar angelogy and Hermetic ideas and places the whole system within the context of Sufism. the outstanding among those who kept up the tradition of Ishraqi school were Mir Damad (d. 1041/1631), Mulla Sadra (d. 1050/1640) and Haji Hadi Sabziwari (d. 1295/1878). See also al-hikmat al-dhauqiyah.

al-hikmat al-bahthiyah

Philosophy based on discursive intellect and its abstract speculations, a name given by the philosophers of Illuminationism to the philosophy of Aristotle and his representatives in Muslim philosophy (masha’iyun). See also al-hikmat al-dhauqiyah.

al-hikmat al-dhauqiyah

Philosophy based on Illuminative disclosures of inner experiences and mystical intuitions as opposed to al-hikmat al-bahthiyah (q.v.), the philosophy based on discursive intellect and theoretical speculations. A distinction made by the philosophers of Illuminationism (, q.v.). While the former opens up new frontiers of experience and suggestion and inner illumination, the latter merely enters into subtle dialectical discussions through definitions, explanations and abstract speculations. See also al-hikmat al-ishraqiyah.

al-hikmat al-riyadiyah

The science of mathematics which consists of four disciplines: arithmetic, geometry, astronomy and theory of music.

al-hikmat al-majhuulah

"The unknown wisdom", i.e. those acts of God the wisdom of which remain unknown to human beings, for example the infliction of pain upon the innocent and virtuous. The term is used equally with reference to such religious beliefs as are beyond our finite understanding.

al-hikmat al-muwwahamah

The Arabic title given by al-Farabi to Aristotle’s sixth book on logic, viz. Sophistici Elenchi. See also Sufistiqah.


State [see al-Farabi, Fusul al-Madani, Fasl 1, 103, Dunlop trans. 27. composition [see my translation of Asfar 1: 21, line 1] (AnAc)


Temporal origination, temporal emergence, becoming. (AnAc)


Fusion, permeation or indewelling; a term used in philosophy in different senses: (1) the substantial union of the body and soul; (2) indewelling of the divine spirit in man; (3) inherence of an accident in its substance; (4) the union of form (surah) with prime matter (hayula, q.v.); (5) the relation between a body and its place.

al-hulul al-jawari

The relation of something being contained in a container like water in a water-pot, a term used synonymous with (al-hulul al-tarayani, q.v.).

al-hulul al-sarayani

The fusion of a thing into another so that it penetrates into every part of the latter like the fragrance of a rose into the rose flower.

al-hulul al-tarayani

The relation of something being contained in a container like water in a water-pot; also sometimes called al-hulul al-jawari opposed to al-hulul al-sarayani (q.v.).

haml al-ishtiqaq

Incomplete or partial prediction of a subject in a subject-predicate proposition, e.g. when we say that man is a biped.

haml al-muwatah

Complete prediction of a subject in the subject-predicate proposition so that the two become congruent and convertible with each other, e.g. when we say that man is a rational animal; opposed to haml al-ishtiqaq (q.v.).

al-hawas al-batinah

The internal senses; these include common sense(al-hiss al-mushtarik, q.v.), formative faculty (al-quwwat al-mutasawwirah, q.v.), memory (al-quwwat al-mutadhakkirah, q.v.), imagination (al-quwwat al-mutakhayyilah, q.v.) and estimative faculty (al-quwwat al-mutawahhimah, q.v.); see also al-quwwat al-mudrikah.

al-hawas al-khamsah

The five external sense: touch (lams), taste (dhauq), smell (shamm), sight (basr) and hearing (sam‘), which this order according to the philosophers, from a series in a graded order in which the distinctive nature of the sensation receiving the form without the mother of its object is increasingly manifested.

al-hawas al-zahirah

The external senses; include touch (lams), taste (dhauq), smell (shamm), sight (basr) and hearing (sam‘); these are five senses (al-hawas al-khamsah) if touch is considered a single sense, but eight (al-hawas al-thamaniyah) if it is supposed to comprise the four pairs of contraries: hot (hararah) and cold (burudah); dry (yubusah) and moist (rutubah); hard (salabah) and soft (rakhamah); and smooth (mulasah) and rough (khushunah).

Hayy Ibn Yaqzan

"The living One, Son of the Vigilant", the title of the celebrated philosophical romance -one of the most remarkable works of the Middle Ages -by the Andulsian Muslim philosopher Ibn Tufail (504?-581/ 1110?-1185). No book on Muslim philosophy perhaps has been translated into so many languages of the world as this. link: an English language translation that was done in 1906(?). (PDF format).

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